Solar wind
speed: 368.1 km/sec
density: 3.4 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1035 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: A7
0623 UT Sep19
24-hr: A7
0623 UT Sep19
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 1000 UT
Daily Sun: 19 Sep 19
The sun is blank--no sunspots. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 0
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 19 Sep 2019

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 16 days
2019 total: 185 days (71%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 19 Sep 2019


Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 4.20
x1010 W Cold
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 18 Sep 2019

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 66 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 19 Sep 2019

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 3
quiet
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 3.2 nT
Bz: -0.3 nT south
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1037 UT
Coronal Holes: 19 Sep 19


Solar wind flowing from this coronal hole could hit Earth's magnetic field on Sept. 23rd.
Credit: SDO/AIA

Noctilucent Clouds The northern season for noctilucent clouds has ended. NASA's AIM spacecraft is no longer detecting electric-blue clouds around the Arctic Circle.
Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, Polar
Updated at: 09-03-2019 13:55:02 UT
SPACE WEATHER
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2019 Sep 18 2200 UTC
FLARE
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
CLASS M
01 %
01 %
CLASS X
01 %
01 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2019 Sep 18 2200 UTC
Mid-latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
05 %
05 %
MINOR
01 %
01 %
SEVERE
01 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
15 %
15 %
MINOR
15 %
15 %
SEVERE
10 %
10 %
 
Thursday, Sep. 19, 2019
What's up in space
       
 

Solar minimum is here - but even now strangely beautiful auroras are dancing around the poles. Deep inside the Arctic Circle, the expert guides of Aurora Holidays in Utsjoki, Finland, can help you chase them. Book now!

 

THE NEXT SOLAR WIND STREAM: Earth is currently moving through a void between significant streams of solar wind. The next impulse of gas from the sun is expected on Sept. 23rd when a narrow hole in the sun's atmosphere firehoses Earth. Waning moonlight will favor visibility of Arctic auroras. Aurora alerts: SMS Text.

PERSISTENT PURPLE SUNSETS: How long does volcanic gas linger in the stratosphere? Sky watchers around the world are seeing for themselves. Three months after the Raikoke volcano spewed a plume of sulfurous gas into the stratosphere, sunsets are still turning purple. Here's the latest plum-colored sunset from Lavallette, New Jersey:

"The purple color became prominent about 20 minutes after sunset," says  Joseph Golebieski, who took the picture on Sept. 18th. "I used a Nikon D500 digital camera set at ISO 200 for a 1/5s exposure."

Why purple? Fine volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere scatter blue light which, when mixed with ordinary sunset red, produces a violet hue. The stratosphere is laced with emissions not only from Raikoke in the Kirul islands, but also from the Ulawun volcano in New Guinea. Plumes from both punched through to the stratosphere during summer 2019.

Research shows that sulfurous gas in the stratosphere can linger for as much as 3 years. Sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere combines with water to form sulfuric acid aerosols.  Eventually, the droplets grow large enough to fall to Earth--but the process is slow. This means purple sunsets could continue for some time to come.

Realtime Volcanic Sunset Photo Gallery
Free: Spaceweather.com Newsletter

HOW RAINBOWS SUCK LIGHT OUT OF THE SKY: A few days ago in Östersund, Sweden, Göran Strand saw a beautiful double rainbow. The arcing colors, however, were not what attracted his attention. "The amazing thing was the dark band between them!" he says.


"This band is called Alexander's dark band after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described the effect in 200 AD." says Strand.

All double rainbows are separated by such a band. The bright primary bow (on the left) is formed by light reflected once inside raindrops. The less-bright secondary bow (on the right) is formed by light reflected twice inside raindrops. These reflections, single vs. double, scatter light in opposite directions. In between the two rainbows, light is simply not bent toward the observer, so it looks dark.

And that's how rainbows can suck light out of the sky. Find more examples in the Realtime Rainbow Photo Gallery!

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free: Spaceweather.com Newsletter

THE ANTARES PENDANT: Are you looking for a far-out gift? Consider the Antares Pendant. On Aug. 19, 2019, the students of Earth to Sky Calculus launched a cosmic ray balloon to the edge of space, 104,002 ft high. This ruby-red crystal necklace went along for the ride:

You can have it for $179.95. The students are selling these white gold-plated pendants to support their cosmic ray ballooning program. The glittering Swarovski crystal has a deep ruby hue inspired by the red-supergiant star Antares in Scorpio. Each one comes with greeting card showing the pendant in flight and telling the story of its journey to the edge of space and back again.

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM education


Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter
  

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.

On Sep. 18, 2019, the network reported 16 fireballs.
(14 sporadics, 1 southern Taurid, 1 Sept epsilon Perseid)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On September 19, 2019 there were 2018 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Asteroid
Date(UT)
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2010 RM82
2019-Sep-13
18.2 LD
14.6
23
2013 CV83
2019-Sep-13
16.1 LD
13.1
62
504800
2019-Sep-14
13.9 LD
14.4
155
2019 RT
2019-Sep-14
13.7 LD
16.6
50
2019 RQ2
2019-Sep-14
9.4 LD
17.2
29
467317
2019-Sep-14
13.9 LD
6.4
389
2019 JF1
2019-Sep-16
11.2 LD
4.3
62
2018 FU1
2019-Sep-16
18.4 LD
4.7
16
2019 RC
2019-Sep-16
17.4 LD
15.1
157
2019 SC
2019-Sep-19
1.4 LD
13.5
12
2019 RP2
2019-Sep-20
8.5 LD
1.6
6
2017 SL16
2019-Sep-21
7.9 LD
6.5
25
2017 SM21
2019-Sep-21
11.5 LD
9.6
20
2019 RE2
2019-Sep-21
19.7 LD
8.7
40
2019 RB3
2019-Sep-21
19 LD
11.8
50
2019 QZ1
2019-Sep-22
12.5 LD
8.2
77
523934
2019-Sep-24
10.9 LD
22.3
257
2019 QY3
2019-Sep-26
13.9 LD
8.4
39
2017 KP27
2019-Sep-26
4.2 LD
4.7
25
2006 QV89
2019-Sep-27
18.1 LD
4.1
31
2018 FK5
2019-Oct-01
13.3 LD
10.5
8
2018 LG4
2019-Oct-02
13.8 LD
8.1
12
2017 TJ4
2019-Oct-05
13.5 LD
8.9
32
2019 RK
2019-Oct-08
16.7 LD
3.1
31
162082
2019-Oct-25
16.2 LD
11.2
589
2017 TG5
2019-Oct-25
14.4 LD
11.9
34
2015 JD1
2019-Nov-03
12.9 LD
11.9
269
2010 JG
2019-Nov-12
19.6 LD
14.9
235
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SOMETHING NEW! We have developed a new predictive model of aviation radiation. It's called E-RAD--short for Empirical RADiation model. We are constantly flying radiation sensors onboard airplanes over the US and and around the world, so far collecting more than 22,000 gps-tagged radiation measurements. Using this unique dataset, we can predict the dosage on any flight over the USA with an error no worse than 15%.

E-RAD lets us do something new: Every day we monitor approximately 1400 flights criss-crossing the 10 busiest routes in the continental USA. Typically, this includes more than 80,000 passengers per day. E-RAD calculates the radiation exposure for every single flight.

The Hot Flights Table is a daily summary of these calculations. It shows the 5 charter flights with the highest dose rates; the 5 commercial flights with the highest dose rates; 5 commercial flights with near-average dose rates; and the 5 commercial flights with the lowest dose rates. Passengers typically experience dose rates that are 20 to 70 times higher than natural radiation at sea level.

To measure radiation on airplanes, we use the same sensors we fly to the stratosphere onboard Earth to Sky Calculus cosmic ray balloons: neutron bubble chambers and X-ray/gamma-ray Geiger tubes sensitive to energies between 10 keV and 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Column definitions: (1) The flight number; (2) The maximum dose rate during the flight, expressed in units of natural radiation at sea level; (3) The maximum altitude of the plane in feet above sea level; (4) Departure city; (5) Arrival city; (6) Duration of the flight.

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Approximately once a week, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population. Our latest measurements show that cosmic rays are intensifying, with an increase of more than 18% since 2015:

The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Reneger-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Reneger and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

En route to the stratosphere, our sensors also pass through aviation altitudes:

In this plot, dose rates are expessed as multiples of sea level. For instance, we see that boarding a plane that flies at 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x higher than sea level. At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x.

The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Why are cosmic rays intensifying? The main reason is the sun. Solar storm clouds such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the weakening of Earth's magnetic field, which helps protect us from deep-space radiation.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
STEREO
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Heliophysics
  the underlying science of space weather

Spaceweather.com welcomes these supporters of science communication: RV Sales and CRAS, the Conservatory of Recording Arts and Sciences and Windshield Replacement Phoenix and Breast Augmentation Phoenix and Dentist Chandler, AZ.

   
Look no further to find the best Comox Valley Real Estate listings and homes for sale
   
NASA Near Earth Asteroid Home Page
   
Chicago SEO Expert
   
Search Kelowna Real Estate Listings & Homes for Sale easily.
Find help on all Calgary Homes For Sale and Real Estate Listings. Great source for Edmonton Real Estate Listings & Homes For Sale
The best place for soundcloud followers buy is definitely BRSM.IO
LeoVegas

To find reviews of new online casino sites in the UK try The Casino DB where there are hundreds of online casino reviews complete with bonuses and ratings.

Looking for a new online casino? Try Casimpo the new site dedicated to making online casino simple and easy for all.

  These links help Spaceweather.com stay online. Thank you to our supporters!
  more links...
 
 





space weather alerts

EHIC Card

GiftGeek.co

Law Offices of Parente & Norem, P.C.

The Fernandez Firm

Joseph M. Dooley
Chicago Injury Attorney


Personal Injury Attorneys New York



Book your Morocco desert tours here and enjoy star gazing at the crystal clear sky of Erg Chebbi

space weather alerts

space weather alerts



Balkongarten

Bio Gartenportal

space weather alerts



Savant Magazine

NobleRate


Top10BestPro 

space weather alerts


Comparing PAYE
umbrella companies
for UK contractors and freelancers

Law Offices of Randolph Rice
.

space weather alerts


Kestrel

In your favorite Online Casino Geld gewinnen now!

CasinoHEX Sverige listar och recenserar alla Nya Casinon på nätet med exklusiva bonusar

Interested in mobile casinos? Visit BubnoSlots to find the best real money mobile slots

CasinoGuide has thoroughly reviewed and ranked the best mobile casinos in the UK. Filter by 50+ criteria at https://www.casinoguide.co.uk/mobile-casino.

Qlipso

Find forbrugslån, fagforeninger og kredit lån på Tempest.dk
:
Naples Real Estate

Kompressor

floobs.fi



space weather alerts

Support SpaceWeather.com



space weather alerts

Support SpaceWeather.com



space weather alerts

Bitcoin Profit Trading Software

Bitcoin Code Trading Software

CasinoRunner brings you all new online casino sites 2020

UK gamblers will find new casino sites at at this awesome casino listing site..

The HEX portal gives you a unique opportunity to enjoy the best nettikasinot and experience true Finnish quality!

At casinofavoritter.com you will find the best online casino in Norway.

Gorilla Sports treningsutstyr have professional gym equipment for everyone! Buy kettlebells, weight plates etc.

At Brillz solbriller you will find cheap sun glasses. 3 for only NOK 249i

Nosy Nation

Outdoor Gear Only

Dean Consulting Group

Claim the biggest sign-up bonuses at the  Top Betting Sites in the UK

Kasinohai is Finland's number one source for new online casinos uudet nettikasinot

See the top paypal casinos on GoWin

Hitta onlinekasinon på Slotsify.

Play Online Casino in Norway and get the best offers.

Visit Casino Ratgeber and read about the latest games and offers for German players.

Ahhapoker merupakan salah satu brand besar permainan terpopular di indonesia poker online terpercaya

BestCasinos.fi provides the most comprehensive and up to date list of new online casinos (Uudet nettikasinot) in Finland.

Visit Bestbonus.co.nz for the best casino bonuses in New Zealand

Norway's biggest Sportsbook guide is finally live, check it out here: SpillOdds.com 

Support SpaceWeather.com


Roseville SEO

Insignia SEO Company - Marketing that Works!


Ingatbola88 hadir sebagai bandar judi bola sbobet mobile yang memberikan banyak kemudahan yang bisa anda dapatkan.

Support SpaceWeather.com
space weather alerts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HEY! SOMEBODY'S GOTTA PAY THE SERVER BILLS...

 

オンラインカジノ

 

allvideoslots

Pokiesportal.com: A comprehensive guide to playing pokies and online casinos in Australia

Axioopoker adalah agen judi poker online terpercaya di Indonesia 2019

Finland biggest site for new casinos online, please visit uudet nettikasinot to see the offers

Spinsify the one and only portal for new casinos in UK.. 

Get the reviews for the latest slot games and Boku casino sites at bokuslots.com.

50 Free Spins No Deposit at newfreecasinospins.com

Get the best new online casino sign up bonuses and pokies bonus offers at bonusgiant.com.

Looking for casino games with a space theme? Check out https://casino-bonus.com/games/ for the latest slots. Have fun!

Find the latest new casinos 2019 at CasinoViking UK if you want to play on licensed gambling sites only.

Discover licensed and trustworthy UK casino sites at CasinoPilot, your best guide to online gambling operators.

Find new casinos to play at in the UK.

Compare new casino sites from UK at https://newcasinouk.com/ and enjoy latest online deals.

Check the best 30 free spins bonuses in United Kingdom offered by KingCasinoBonus

Play Space Wars and other space themed slots at InstaCasino and get 10 RealSpins when signing up!

Play space themed games at Norges Casino for your chance to win big!

Visit Forbrukslån to get the best the loan offers

Send one loan application to Lånemegleren.no, get offers from several banks

CasinoTopp.net – Norwegian guide about casino online

If you are looking for forbrukslån in Norway you should check FinansTopp

For the best casino sites in the Nordics check out bestenorskespilleautomater.com

If you like online casinos, check out https://thesocialcasino.co.uk/ for the latest brands

When comparing online casinos - Casinorella is a recommended site with detailed reviews.



       
©2019 Spaceweather.com. All rights reserved. This site is penned daily by Dr. Tony Phillips.



Learn how to use Excel

space weather alerts


Lera Blog

 


Best in Australia




Support SpaceWeather.com

space weather alerts



Support SpaceWeather.com