Solar wind
speed: 441.5 km/sec
density: 5.28 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 0357 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C4
0311 UT Dec01
24-hr: C4
0311 UT Dec01
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 0405 UT
Daily Sun: 30 Nov 23
Expand: labels | no labels | Carrington
Sunspot AR3500 has a 'beta-gamma' magnetic field that poses a threat for strong M-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 138
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 30 Nov 2023

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2023 total: 0 days (0%)
2022 total: 1 day (<1%)
2021 total: 64 days (18%)
2020 total: 208 days (57%)
2019 total: 281 days (77%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 30 Nov 2023

Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 18.67x1010 W Warm
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 30 Nov 2023

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 171 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 30 Nov 2023

Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is intensifying, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu's Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining--a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

Oulu Neutron Counts

Percentages of the Space Age average:
today: -4.7% Low
48-hr change: -0.1%
Max: +11.7% Very High
Min: -32.1% Very Low (06/1991)
explanation | more data
Updated 30 Nov 2023 @ 0700 UT

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 4.33 unsettled
24-hr max: Kp= 4.33
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 11.86 nT
Bz: -0.58 nT south
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 0401 UT
Coronal Holes: 30 Nov 23

Solar wind flowing from this large coronal hole should reach Earth on Dec. 4.
Credit: SDO/AIA

Noctilucent Clouds
The northern season for NLCs began on May 26th. The first clouds were detected inside the Arctic Circle by the NOAA 21 satellite. An instrument onboard NOAA 21 (OMPS LP) is able to detect NLCs (also known as "polar mesospheric clouds" or PMCs). For the rest of the season, daily maps from NOAA 21 will be presented here:

Updated: Aug. 29, 2023

Each dot is a detected cloud. As the season progresses, these dots will multiply in number and shift in hue from blue to red as the brightness of the clouds intensifies.

What happened to NASA's AIM spacecraft, which has been monitoring NLCs since 2007? Earlier this year, the spacecraft's battery failed. As a result AIM is offline, perhaps permanently. There may be some hope of a recovery as AIM's orbit precesses into full sunlight in 2024. Until then, we will maintain AIM's iconic "daily daisy," frozen at Feb. 28, 2023, as a show of thanks for years of service and hope for future daisies:
Switch view:Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, East Antarctica, Polar
Updated Dec01
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2023 Nov 30 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
35 %
35 %
10 %
10 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2023 Nov 30 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
20 %
35 %
30 %
25 %
40 %
05 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
10 %
15 %
20 %
20 %
60 %
20 %
Friday, Dec. 1, 2023
What's up in space

This is an AI Free Zone! Text created by ChatGPT and other Large Language Models is spreading rapidly across the Internet. It's well-written, artificial, frequently inaccurate. If you find a mistake on, rest assured it was made by a real human being.


A CME JUST HIT EARTH: However, it might not be the "Big One." A CME hit Earth's magnetic field on Dec. 1st at 0021 UT, jolting the USGS magnetometer in Frericksberg, Virginia, by 36 nT. This could be the first of two+ CMEs en route to Earth. NOAA forecasters expect a Cannibal CME (composed of multiple storm clouds) to reach Earth midday on Dec. 1st. Meanwhile, minor G1-class geomagnetic storms are in the offing. Aurora alerts: SMS Text

Sky watchers in Iceland witnessed the CME's arrival. Its impact turned the night sky green:

Jim Scripko sends the photo from Exton, Pennsylvania. He was watching the Langihryggur volcano webcam in Iceland when the auroras appeared. "This image may seem utterly underwhelming, but consider that it is a screen shot of a low resolution webcam that is set up to watch for volcanic activity," says Scripko. "It shows some tremendous auroras. I'll be excited to see what photographers with real cameras turn up!"

Would you like to know when the next CME arrives? Sign up for our Space Weather Alert Service and you'll receive an instant text message when the Cannibal CME strikes.

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

CHRISTMAS GIFTS FROM THE EDGE OF SPACE: Christmas is coming. Are you looking for a far-out gift? Check out the Earth to Sky Store. It's filled with unique items that have flown to the edge of space onboard cosmic ray research balloons.

Carried aloft by giant helium balloons, these unique gifts have flown above 99.7% of Earth's atmosphere, experiencing space-like blasts of cosmic rays, extreme cold, and a wild ride parachuting back to Earth after the balloon explodes. Even Amazon doesn't carry items this far out.

Don't forget to enter coupon code "SPACEPICKLE" at checkout for a 15% Black Friday discount.

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM educatio

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Nov 28, 2023, the network reported 9 fireballs.
(8 sporadics, 1 Leonid)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On December 1, 2023 there were 2349 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2019 CZ2
2.8 LD
2023 VH5
17.9 LD
2023 WN2
7.4 LD
2023 WT2
2.2 LD
2023 VM1
10.9 LD
2013 UB3
18.5 LD
2023 WE1
7.8 LD
2023 VR5
5.3 LD
2023 VY8
17 LD
2023 WC1
5.7 LD
2023 WD3
8 LD
2023 VM7
6.4 LD
1998 WB2
11 LD
2013 VX4
5.1 LD
2023 WW
7.8 LD
2023 TB27
17 LD
14.4 LD
2023 VF12
13 LD
2023 WG
17.6 LD
2023 WH
11.9 LD
2020 HX3
9.8 LD
2010 XF3
19.4 LD
2016 XD2
18.7 LD
16.5 LD
2018 YJ2
18.4 LD
2022 YG
10.8 LD
2023 VD6
10.6 LD
2020 YO3
3.6 LD
2010 UE51
9 LD
2020 YR2
13.8 LD
2021 AM6
18.3 LD
2019 KK5
10.6 LD
2002 AY1
15.2 LD
2020 AC1
19.3 LD
2021 CZ2
8 LD
2021 BL3
17.2 LD
2017 BG92
11.8 LD
2011 CQ1
11.3 LD
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Almost once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with sensors that detect secondary cosmic rays, a form of radiation from space that can penetrate all the way down to Earth's surface. Our monitoring program has been underway without interruption for 7 years, resulting in a unique dataset of in situ atmospheric measurements.

Latest results (July 2022): Atmospheric radiation is decreasing in 2022. Our latest measurements in July 2022 registered a 6-year low:

What's going on? Ironically, the radiation drop is caused by increasing solar activity. Solar Cycle 25 has roared to life faster than forecasters expected. The sun's strengthening and increasingly tangled magnetic field repels cosmic rays from deep space. In addition, solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays, causing sharp reductions called "Forbush Decreases." The two effects blend together to bring daily radiation levels down.

.Who cares? Cosmic rays are a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. They can alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. According to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health, crews of aircraft have higher rates of cancer than the general population. The researchers listed cosmic rays, irregular sleep habits, and chemical contaminants as leading risk factors. A number of controversial studies (#1, #2, #3, #4) go even further, linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

Technical notes: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Data points in the graph labeled "Stratospheric Radiation" correspond to the peak of the Regener-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Regener and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
  information about sunspots based on the latest NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary
Starlink Satellite Statistics
  current counts of failed and deployed Starlink satellites from Jonathan's Space Page
The Aerospace Corporation
  Authoritative predictions of space junk and satellite re-entries
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Live Aurora Webcam
  from Lights over Lapland
  the underlying science of space weather welcomes these supporters of science communication: RV Sales and Arizona SEO and Arizona Business Directory and C8 Corvette | Phoenix Personal Injury Lawyer | Phoenix SEO

To get the best views of the cosmos, check out the Phoenix Window Glass Replacement experts for all your window and glass needs

To get an up close view of the heavenly bodies surrounding Earth, think about selling your junk car for cash and buying a high quality telescope.
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NASA Near Earth Asteroid Home Page

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