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SpaceWeather.com -- News and information about meteor showers, solar flares, auroras, and near-Earth asteroids
 
Solar wind
speed: 604.4 km/sec
density: 9.8 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 2353 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: X1
1701 UT Sep10
24-hr: X8
1606 UT Sep10
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 2300 UT
Daily Sun: 10 Sep 17
Departing sunspot AR2673 has a "beta-gamma-delta" magnetic field that harbors energy for X-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 49
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 10 Sep 2017

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2017 total: 56 days (22%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)

2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)

Updated 10 Sep 2017


The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 107 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 10 Sep 2017

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 2 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 3
quiet
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 2.4 nT
Bz: 0.4 nT north
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 2352 UT
Coronal Holes: 10 Sep 17

Solar wind flowing from this coronal hole could brush against Earth's magnetic field on Sept. 13th. Credit: NASA/SDO.
Noctilucent Clouds Latest images from NASA's AIM spacecraft show that the 2017 northern summer season for noctilucent clouds has finished.
Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, Polar
Updated at: 09-03-2017 01:55:03
SPACE WEATHER
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2017 Sep 10 2200 UTC
FLARE
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
CLASS M
80 %
10 %
CLASS X
50 %
01 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2017 Sep 10 2200 UTC
Mid-latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
15 %
25 %
MINOR
05 %
10 %
SEVERE
01 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
15 %
15 %
MINOR
20 %
30 %
SEVERE
20 %
40 %
 
Sunday, Sep. 10, 2017
What's up in space
       
 

Lights Over Lapland is excited to announce that our Customisable Aurora Adventures are available for immediate booking! Reserve your adventure of a lifetime in Abisko National Park, Sweden today!

 

SPACECRAFT CRASHING INTO SATURN: Almost 20 years after it left Earth, NASA's Cassini spacecraft is about to end its mission to Saturn by plunging into the atmosphere of the ringed planet. A new video from NASA recaps the spacecraft's discoveries and previews the incredible photos Cassini might take--just before it turns into a fireball. Impact date: Sept.15th. Stay tuned!

MAJOR SOLAR FLARE AND RADIATION STORM: Departing sunspot AR2673 erupted again on Sept.10th (1606 UT), producing a major X8-class solar flare.  Protons accelerated toward Earth by the explosion are swarming around our planet now, causing a moderately strong solar radiation storm. (continued below)


NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded the flare's extreme UV flash

A pulse of ultraviolet and X-radiation from the flare ionized the top of Earth's atmosphere, triggering a shortwave radio blackout over the Americas (blackout map #1). That blackout is now subsiding. However, an even stronger blackout of shortwave radio communications around the poles is still underway (blackout map #2). Stay tuned for updates about this significant event.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

EXTREME AURORAS OVER ALASKA: During the late hours of Sept. 7th, a CME hit Earth's magnetic field. It was fast-moving debris from a monster X9-class solar flare the day before. By the time night fell in Alaska, a severe (G4-class) geomagnetic storm was in progress. "The auroras blew their top off until the break of dawn on Sept. 8th," says Todd Salat who photographed the display from the Knik River Valley:

"For three hours I could barely keep up with the dynamic 360° show," says Salat. "It was a great Rorschach test of reflective patterns in the Knik River."

During a normal geomagnetic storm, auroras are seen in only one US state: Alaska. This time, however, sky watchers saw them in at least 18: Alaska, Maine, Connecticut, New York, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Illinois, Minnesota, Delaware, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Iowa, Maryland, Virginia, Vermont, South Dakota and, believe it or not, Arkansas. That was a severe storm, indeed. Browse the gallery for many more sightings. Free: Aurora Alerts

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery

GOODBYE SUNSPOT, SEE YOU IN 2 WEEKS: Sunspot AR2673 materialized with shocking speed on Sept. 3rd. Three days later it unleashed the strongest solar flare in more than a decade, an X9.3-class eruption that hurled a CME directly at Earth. Now this memorable sunspot is about to disappear. Maximilian Teodorescu of Magurele, Romania, photographed it approaching the sun's western limb:

"AR2673 is preparing for departure," says Teodorescu. "As it goes towards the limb its shape is distorted like the hot air distorts far away objects during the summer days."

Later today, the sunspot will go around the bend, commencing a 2-week journey across the backside of the sun. Will it still be as potent when it reappears 14 days from now? Stay tuned for updates as the sun turns.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

ROSE QUARTZ CRYSTAL ECLIPSE PENDANTS: On Aug. 21st during the Great American Solar Eclipse, the students of Earth to Sky Calculus launched 11 space weather balloons from the path of totality. They aimed to photograph the Moon's shadow from the stratosphere--and they succeeded. As a fundraiser, some of the balloons carried jewelry. Here is a rose quartz crystal pendant entering the Moon's shadow more than 90,000 feet above the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon:

During the 2.5 hour flight, the pendants were wrapped in the Moon's shadow for more than two minutes, experiencing a spooky darkness colder than -50 C.

You can have one for $149.95. Each crystal pendant comes with a unique gift card showing the jewelry passing through the Moon's shadow and floating at the top of Earth's atmosphere. The interior of the card tells the story of the flight and confirms that this gift has been to the edge of space and back again.

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All proceeds support hands-on STEM education


Solar Eclipse Photo Gallery


  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.

On Sep. 10, 2017, the network reported 22 fireballs.
(14 sporadics, 8 September epsilon Perseids)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On September 10, 2017 there were 1803 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Asteroid
Date(UT)
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2017 RB
2017-Sep-06
3.8 LD
5.2
9
2017 OP68
2017-Sep-10
20 LD
11.7
273
2017 QK18
2017-Sep-11
14.8 LD
7.8
45
2014 RC
2017-Sep-11
15.1 LD
8.9
16
2017 PR25
2017-Sep-23
17.9 LD
13.5
241
1989 VB
2017-Sep-29
7.9 LD
6.3
408
2017 OD69
2017-Oct-01
13.2 LD
7.6
213
2012 TC4
2017-Oct-12
0.1 LD
7.6
16
2005 TE49
2017-Oct-13
8.5 LD
11.2
16
2013 UM9
2017-Oct-15
17 LD
7.8
39
2006 TU7
2017-Oct-18
18.7 LD
13.3
148
171576
2017-Oct-22
5.8 LD
21.2
677
2003 UV11
2017-Oct-31
15 LD
24.5
447
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Readers, thank you for your patience while we continue to develop this new section of Spaceweather.com. We've been working to streamline our data reduction, allowing us to post results from balloon flights much more rapidly, and we have developed a new data product, shown here:

This plot displays radiation measurements not only in the stratosphere, but also at aviation altitudes. Dose rates are expessed as multiples of sea level. For instance, we see that boarding a plane that flies at 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x higher than sea level. At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x. These measurements are made by our usual cosmic ray payload as it passes through aviation altitudes en route to the stratosphere over California.

What is this all about? Approximately once a week, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population. Our latest measurements show that cosmic rays are intensifying, with an increase of more than 13% since 2015:


Why are cosmic rays intensifying? The main reason is the sun. Solar storm clouds such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the weakening of Earth's magnetic field, which helps protect us from deep-space radiation.

The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Reneger-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Reneger and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
STEREO
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
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NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Heliophysics
  the underlying science of space weather
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