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<<back forward>> -- News and information about meteor showers, solar flares, auroras, and near-Earth asteroids
Science news and information about the Sun-Earth environment.


Solar Wind

speed: 503.8 km/s
2.1 protons/cm3
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2244 UT

X-ray Solar Flares

6-hr max:
C1 1735 UT Jan08
24-hr: M1 0505 UT Jan08
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2245 UT

Daily Sun: 08 Jan '04
Sunspots 536 and 537 pose a threat for strong M-class solar flares. Image credit: SOHO/MDI

Sunspot Number: 93
What is the sunspot number?
Updated: 07 Jan 2004

Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 6.3 nT
4.4 nT south
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2246 UT

Coronal Holes:

Earth is inside a solar wind stream flowing from the indicated coronal hole. Image credit: SOHO Extreme UV Telescope.


Solar Flares: Probabilities for a medium-sized (M-class) or a major (X-class) solar flare during the next 24/48 hours are tabulated below.
Updated at 2004 Jan 08 2200 UTC
FLARE 0-24 hr 24-48 hr
CLASS M 70 % 70 %
CLASS X 20 % 20 %

Geomagnetic Storms: Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at 2004 Jan 08 2200 UTC
0-24 hr 24-48 hr
ACTIVE 25 % 25 %
MINOR 15 % 15 %
SEVERE 05 % 05 %

High latitudes
0-24 hr 24-48 hr
ACTIVE 40 % 40 %
MINOR 20 % 20 %
SEVERE 10 % 10 %

What's Up in Space -- 8 Jan 2004
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SOLAR ACTIVITY: Sunspots 536 and 537 have both unleashed strong M-class solar flares this week, and they harbor energy for even stronger X-class explosions. NOAA forecasters estimate a 15% chance of an X-flare during the next 24 hours. Such an explosion from sunspot 536 today would be squarely Earth directed.

AURORA OUTLOOK: An explosion near sunspot 537 yesterday (Jan. 7th at 1030 UT) hurled a coronal mass ejection (CME) into space. Although it was not aimed directly at Earth, the CME might deliver a glancing blow to our planet's magnetic field on Jan. 8th or more likely the 9th. High latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras, like these photographed Pinky Becker of Cooper Center, Alaska, on Jan. 6th. [gallery]

MOON HALOS: When the moon is nearly full, like tonight, it's a good time to look for rings around the moon--a.k.a. "moon halos." Joe Carr of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, photographed this one on January 5th:

Rings around the moon are formed by ice crystals in thin clouds 5 to 10 km above Earth's surface. The crystals reflect and bend moonlight into lovely shapes, including moon pillars and moondogs. Water droplets in the air (as opposed to ice crystals) can also cause colorful and fuzzy moon coronas. When the full moon is out, look up. You never know what you might see.

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs are on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.

On 8 Jan 2004 there were 564 known Potentially
Hazardous Asteroids

December 2003 Earth-asteroid encounters


2003 YS17

Jan 14

14 LD

2001 BE10

Jan 15

23 LD

Notes: LD is a "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.

Essential Web Links

NOAA Space Environment Center -- The official U.S. government bureau for real-time monitoring of solar and geophysical events, research in solar-terrestrial physics, and forecasting solar and geophysical disturbances.

Atmospheric Optics -- the first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory -- Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO. (European Mirror Site)

Daily Sunspot Summaries -- from the NOAA Space Environment Center.

Current Solar Images --a gallery of up-to-date solar pictures from the National Solar Data Analysis Center at the Goddard Space Flight Center. See also the GOES-12 Soft X-ray Imager.

Recent Solar Events -- a nice summary of current solar conditions from

SOHO Farside Images of the Sun from SWAN and MDI.

The Latest SOHO Coronagraph Images -- from the Naval Research Lab

The Sun from Earth -- daily images of our star from the Big Bear Solar Observatory

List of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids -- from the Harvard Minor Planet Center.

Observable Comets -- from the Harvard Minor Planet Center.

What is the Interplanetary Magnetic Field? -- A lucid answer from the University of Michigan. See also the Anatomy of Earth's Magnetosphere.

Real-time Solar Wind Data -- from NASA's ACE spacecraft. How powerful are solar wind gusts? Read this story from Science@NASA.

More Real-time Solar Wind Data -- from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Proton Monitor.

Aurora Forecast --from the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute

Daily Solar Flare and Sunspot Data -- from the NOAA Space Environment Center.

Lists of Coronal Mass Ejections -- from 1998 to 2001

What is an Iridium flare? See also Photographing Satellites by Brian Webb.

Vandenberg AFB missile launch schedule.

What is an Astronomical Unit, or AU?

Mirages: Mirages in Finland; An Introduction to Mirages;

NOAA Solar Flare and Sunspot Data: 1999; 2000; 2001; 2002; Jan-Mar., 2003; Apr-Jun., 2003;

Recent International Astronomical Union Circulars


Editor's Note: This site is sponsored by Science@NASA. Space weather and other forecasts that appear here are formulated by Dr. Tony Phillips. They should not be construed as guarantees of space weather or other celestial activity.

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